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Expatriates from Nazi Fascism and their Influence on Modern Art and Architecture in the US

Primary Source:
Barron, Stephanie with Eckmann, Sabine.
Exiles and Emigrés, The Flight of European Artists from Hitler. Los Angeles: Los Angeles County Museum of Art, & New York: Abrams, 1997.

Print Media (Works Cited - Referenced Sources):

Four Great Makers of Modern Architecture: Gropius, Le Corbusier, Miës van der Rohe, Wright. New York: De Capo Press, 1970.

De La Croix, Horst, et al. Gardner's Art Through the Ages, 9th ed. New York: Harcourt, Brace, Jovanovich,1987.

Hitchcock, Henry-Russell and Johnson, Philip (with a new foreword and appendix by Henry-Russell Hitchcock). The International Style. 1932, New York: Norton, 1966.

Pawley, Martin, ed. Miës van der Rohe, Library of Contemporary Architects. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1970.

Rueschemeyer, Marilyn, et al. Soviet Emigre Artists, Life and Work in the USSR and the United States. (Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 1985)

Print Media (Works Consulted - Researched Sources):

Frascina, Francis and Harrison, Charles, ed. Modern Art and Modernism, A Critical Anthology. New York: Harper & Row Icon Ed., 1982.

Hayes, Carlton J. H. A Generation of Materialism 1871-1900, The Rise of Modern Europe. William L. Langer, ed. New York: Harper & Bros., 1941.

Ockman, Joan, "Mirror Images: Technology, Consumption, and the Representation of Gender in American Architecture since World War II," Agrest, Diana; Conway, Patricia; Weisman, Leslie Kanes, ed., The Sex of Architecture. New York: Abrams, 1996: "...Having its major origin in the interwar modern movment in Europe, the postwar International Style was an outcome of the doctrine codified by Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson in the 1932 show at the Museum of Modern Art and of the teachings disseminatd by the European emigres who began at this time to head Ajerica's most prestigious schools of architecture..." 195.

Pachter, Henry. "On Being an Exile, An Old-Timer's Personal and Political Memoir" in The Legacy of the German Refugee Intellectuals, ed. Boyers, Robert. New York: Schocken Books, 1969.

Tietz, Jürgen. The Story of Architecture of the 20th Century. Cologne: Könemann, 1999.

Zevi, Bruno. The Language of Modern Architecture. 1978, reprint New York: Da Capo Press, 1994.

Electronic Media (Works Cited - Referenced Sources):

The Roberto Matta Echaurren. <> (7 September 2004).

Bauhaus (1919-1933) ~The Building of the Future~. <> (7 September 2004).

Cheltenham Art Gallery and Museum, "Arts and Crafts Movement." The Arts & Crafts Museum <> (6 Sept. 2004).

Cummings, Paul. "Interview with Robert Motherwell." Nov. 24, 1971. Smithsonian Archives of American Art
<> (7 September 2004).

German Propaganda Archive, Calvin College.<> (7 September 2004).

MATTA : A GREAT CHILEAN MASTER. <> (7 September 2004).

Rock, Tim. The Art of Matta. <> (7 September 2004).

World Heritage Site. Brief description by UNESCO: Between 1919 and 1933, the Bauhaus School, based first in Weimar and then in Dessau, revolutionized the architectural and aesthetic concepts and practices inherited from the Renaissance. The buildings put up and decorated by the school's professors (Walter Gropius or Hannes Meyer, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy or Wassily Kandinsky) launched the Modern Movement which has shaped much of the architecture of the 20th century. World Heritage Site <> (7 September 2004).

Electronic Media (Works Consulted - Researched Sources):

For an opposing view of the Bauhaus as a positive influence on 20th century modernism, see Nikos A. Salingaros, Twentieth Century Architecture as a Cult. <> (28 October 2004):" The Bauhaus and Taliesin -- two "compounds" upon which contemporary architectural education is based -- followed a cult structure. Walter Gropius established a strict, authoritarian cult regime for resident Bauhaus students. Johannes Itten, a follower of a cultish offshoot of the Mazdaist (Zoroastrian) religion, indoctrinated Bauhaus students into its mystical practices. Wassily Kandinsky, Piet Mondrian, and Theo van Doesburg (all Bauhaus teachers at some point) belonged to the Theosophist movement led by Helena Blavatsky. They subscribed to the mystical cosmology of fellow Theosophist Dr. M. Schoenmackers, whose astrological theories decried that only the primary colors yellow, blue and red could be used."

For an opposing view of the geometric stylizations of modern architecture, see Michael W. Mehaffy & Nikos A. Salingaros,Geometrical Fundamentalism at Plan Net: An Online Architecture Resource Guide. 12/27/2001. <> (23 November 2004)


Related Linked Sources (on this website):

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and the Seagram's Building

Robert Motherwell and Elegy to the Spanish Republic #34

Note: (As a humanities project, the Chicago Manual of Style (CMS) has been used for documentation in this paper.)


"Expatriates from Nazi Fascism and their Influence on Modern Art and Architecture in the US"
website project for Parkland College HIstory 102 course ©2004 by Daniel John Bornt
History 102-940 fall semester 2004 - Dr. Marsh Jones, Instructor