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7. The Eighteenth Century Synopsis art 162 honors

In art, as in life, the Eighteenth Century was a century of transition. The Late Baroque styles which had evolved into the artifice of the Rococo were eventually abandoned in the face of a new world outlook as the "Age of Enlightenment" opened up throughout Western realms. The previous two centuries' discovery and expansion of growing colonies around the globe had brought wealth and power to the established European nations; this is turn helped spark the Industrial Revolution, which, fueled by new discoveries in science and new inventions, brought about vast societal changes. Philosophy simultaneously advocated both the efficiacy of objective scientific reason and the primacy of subjective feelings. As a result, Neoclassicism and Romanticism paralleled each other into 19th century some times in oppostion, and some times as a complement, to the other.


Napoleon Crossing the Alps at St. Bernard - Jacques Louis David

Age of Enlightenment 1750 - 1785
Neoclassicism 1780 - 1820
Romantic Era 1750 - 1850
(Rococo c. 1700 - 1750)


Voltaire - Pen name of Francois Marie Arouet (1694-1778) (R-1065) - caustic French iconoclast, satirist, writer, and philosopher
Pompeii & Herculaneum - ancient Roman empire cities near Naples destroyed by Vesuvius eruption in 79 CE, excavations begun in 18th century
Rousseau - Jean Jacques Rosseeau (1712-1778) Swiss-born French philosopher, author, political theorist, and composer. (R-879)
“social protest art” - art, like Goya's Third of May 1808, that made a pointed commentary against injustices
Aquatint - printing technique that produces prints with tonal qualities
The Eighteenth Century - period between 1700 and 1850 (for art historical purposes), the period bridging the Late Baroque and the beginnings of the Modern era
Enlightenment - historical period from the late Seventeenth to the mid-Eighteenth Century where advances in knowlege and discoveries in science were accompanied by corresponding new directions in philosophical thought, bringing forth belief that a combination of reason and science would free humanity from its bonds of imperfection and inhumanism
Odalisque - member of a Turkish harem
Marat - Jean Paul Marat (1743-1793) Swiss-born French politician and physician... Assassinated in his bath by Charlotte Corday on July 13, 1793 (R-633), an event immortalized by David in his painting Death of Marat (1793).
Black paintings - refers to Goya's privately-displayed paintings of a pyschologically unsettling and macabre nature.

Age of Enlightenment 1750 - 1785

William Hogarth,1697 - 1764
Marriage a La Mode, 1745

Thomas Gainsborough, 1727 - 88
Mary Countess Howe, c. 1765

Angelica Kauffmann — 1741 - 1807
Cornelia Presenting Her Children as Her Treasures, 1785

Elisabeth Louis Vigee-LeBrun, 1755 - 1842
LeBrun and Daughter, 1785

Neoclassicism 1780 -1820

Jacques-Louis David 1748 - 1825

Oath of the Horatii 1784

The Death of Marat, 1793

Thomas Jefferson 1743 - 1826
Monticello, 1770 - 1806

Jean-Auguste Dominique Ingres 1780 - 1867
Apotheosis of Homer, 1827
Grande Odalisque, 1814

ROMANTICISM 1800 - 1850

William Blake, 1757 - 1827
Ancient of Days, 1794

Francisco Goya 1746 - 1828
Family of Charles IV, 1800
The Third of May 1808, Oil on canvas 1814
Saturn Devouring His Child, 1819 - 23
The Sleep of Reason Produres Monsters, 1798

Theodore Gericault, 1791 - 1824
Raft of the Medusa, Oil on canvas 12’ x 23’ 1818-19
Insane Woman, Oil on canvas, 2’ 4” x 1’ 9” c. 1822-23

Eugene Delacroix, 1798 - 1863
The Death of Sardanapalus, Oil on canvas, 12’ x 16’ 1826
Liberty Leading the People, Oil on canvas, 8’6” x 10’S” 1830

Caspar David Friedrich, 1774 - 1840
Cloister Graveyard in the Snow, Oil on canvas, 3’ll” x 5’lO” 1810
Polar Sea, 1824

John Constable, 1776 - 1837
The Hay Wain, Oil on canvas, 4’3” x 6’2’ 1821

Joseph Mallord William Turner, 1775 - 1851
The Slave Ship, Oil on canvas, 2’ll” x 4’ 1840
Rain, Steam, and Speed, 1844

Winslow Homer, 1836 - 1910
Boys in a Pasture, 1834

Sir Joseph Paxton, 1801 - 1865
Crystal Palace, 1850 - 51


Jaques Louis David

Monticello: The Home of Thomas Jefferson

The William Blake Archive

Essay on Post-Postmodernism


Neoclassicism Qualities (A-68):

Values: Order, solemnity
Tone: Calm, rational
Subjects: Greek and Roman history, mythology
Technique: Stressed drawing with lines, not color; no trace of brushstrokes
Role of Art: morally uplifting, inspirational
Founder: David

Romanticism Qualities (A-76):

Values: Intuition, Emotion, Imagination
Inspiration: Medieval and Baroque era, Middle and Far East
Tone: subjective, spontaneous, nonconformist
Color: Unrestrained, deep, rich shades
Subject: Legends, exotica, nature, violence
Genres: Narratives of heroic struggle, landscapes, wild animals
Technique: Quick brushstrokes, strong light-and-shade contasts
Compostion: Use of diagonal